Slovenia Slovenija [slɔˈʋèːnija]),[13] officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: About this soundRepublika Slovenija (help·info),[14] abbr.: RS[15]), is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at the crossroads of the main European cultural and trade routes.[16][17] It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest.[18] It covers 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.07 million.[19] One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic[20] and a member of the United Nations, European Union, and NATO.[21] The capital and largest city is Ljubljana.[22]

Slovenia is mostly mountainous[23] with a mainly continental climate,[24] with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and the northwest, which has an Alpine climate.[25] Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity,[26][27] is one of the most water-rich in Europe,[28] with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, and significant karst underground watercourses.[29] Over half of the territory is covered by forest.[30] The human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven.[31]

Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of Slavic, Germanic, and Romance languages and cultures.[32][33][34] Although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene.[35] The South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a largely secularized country,[36] but its culture and identity have been significantly influenced by Catholicism and Lutheranism.[37] The economy of Slovenia is small, open and export-oriented[38] and has been strongly influenced by international conditions.[39] It has been severely hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s.[40] The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction.[41]

Historically, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, Republic of Venice, French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I., Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. In December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929).

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